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Pharmacy managers are responsible for driving sales and increasing profit in Walmart pharmacies and over-the-counter areas. They must ensure confidentiality of customer information and assigned records, model and enforce the company's customer service guidelines and oversee and implement community outreach programs.

A current pharmacy manager in Albuquerque, N.

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Still, this job is one of the best at Walmart because of its job stability, good benefits, room for career advancement and excellent compensation. Order fillers work out of Walmart distribution centers and are responsible for moving merchandise onto the company's fleet of delivery trucks and keeping the warehouse organized.

This can involve working off hours and operating machinery in a fast-paced environment. An order filler from Buckeye, Ariz. Order fillers are 21 percent happier than other Walmart employees, according to job search and review website Career Bliss. A former order filler from Brundidge, Ala. These five Walmart jobs made the list of the worst due to the largest pay gaps compared to management, high levels of stress and little room for career advancement.

Click through to find out which Walmart jobs are the worst. Cashiers at Walmart are responsible for scanning, bagging and loading merchandise at the checkout. Employees also say the job entails a lot of stress , is very physically demanding and hours get cut during slow seasons, according to reviews on Glassdoor. Cashiers also must achieve the "Item Per Hour" and "Scanning" percentage goal, which can contribute to the demands and stress associated with this role. One Glassdoor reviewer listed out their least favorite parts of the job, including "Hard to work for low pay, hours can be horrible especially for cashiers, late nights and early mornings Inventory control specialists at Walmart work mostly in the back room of the store, and are responsible for all inventory that comes in and out, as well as transporting merchandise to the sales floor using forklifts or pallet jacks.

Inventory control specialists are 37 percent less happy than other employees at Walmart, according to Career Bliss. Employees in this role report they feel understaffed and overworked, and that work-life balance is "severely skewed," according to Glassdoor reviews. The hours can be long and late, and one former employee said on Glassdoor that they kept the team "stocking past 1 am because they didn't have enough people that night.

In addition to meeting Walmart customers at the store's entrance, greeters also assist customers in getting shopping carts, providing store directions or other customer service duties. While that might seem easy, it's important to note greeters are also responsible for identifying potential security threats, or shoplifters, and cleaning floors and restrooms. One current employee also said on Glassdoor there's "no room for advancement if you can't stand on your feet for an entire 8 hour shift" and raises are only "0.

Not only is the pay low, but sales associates also have some unpleasant job responsibilities, including cleaning all areas of the store, performing routine maintenance on machines and other equipment, retrieving abandoned store carts, bagging customer purchases and stocking merchandise.

One current sales associate in Elkton, Md. This is the one management role that made the list of worst jobs at Walmart. A customer service manager spends a great deal of time enforcing proper operations in the store, according to its job description. This includes getting change for cashiers, preparing cash registers and auditing registers for shortages. Feedback is essential and must be clear. It is important that the trainee has some control over and input into the supervisory process.

Finding sufficient time for supervision can be a problem. Trainee behaviours and attitudes towards supervision require more investigation; some behaviours are detrimental both to patient care and learning. Current supervisory practice in medicine has very little empirical or theoretical basis. This review demonstrates the need for more structured and methodologically sound programmes of research into supervision in practice settings so that detailed models of effective supervision can be developed and thereby inform practice.

Clinical supervision has a vital role in postgraduate medical education and, to some extent, undergraduate medical education and yet it is probably the least investigated, discussed and developed aspect of clinical teaching. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on effective supervision in practice settings to identify what is known about effective supervision.

There is a limited amount of published medical literature addressing supervision; in particular, there are few empirical studies. Supervisory processes in related professions have potential relevance for medicine because they can offer relevant skills and insights; consequently, this review has included appropriate literature from other healthcare professions — particularly nursing, and from social work, teaching, psychology and counselling. The review excluded literature relating to research supervision. Although some counselling and psychotherapy literature has been included in the review, articles including detail about transference and counter transference issues and those that concentrate on the therapeutic aspects of the supervision relationship have been excluded.

Supervision is a complex activity, occurring in a variety of settings, has various definitions, functions and modes of delivery.

A Beginners Guide To Supervison: Comments Questions And Answers On Supervising People At Work!

Most importantly, it is an interpersonal exchange. This complexity means that research into supervisory practice presents methodological problems and adequate research methodologies have yet to be established. Many reviewed articles had some empirical aspect; although in some cases this aspect was very weak. Two counselling and psychotherapy reviews exemplify some of these problems. Error types were determined from the blind reviews of the articles. Analysis errors were mainly due to misuse of statistics. Some were due to piecemeal analysis. Although many of the studies had clear hypotheses, very few defined constructs or made any theoretical linkages.

The literature searches identified approximately relevant papers and books. Much of the empirical work was small scale, exploratory and qualitative. This review will have an additional bibliographic function. The approach adopted was to examine the literature to identify what it could contribute towards answering the following questions:. Supervision is usually understood as a distinct intervention which is partly hierarchical and evaluative 14 15 16 although there is some debate, mostly in nursing, about whether a supervisor should also be a manager.

Definitions of supervision embody understandings about its purposes and functions. Probably the most influential formulation of the functions of supervision in the UK literature is that of Bridget Proctor 26 who outlined three functions of supervision based on those defined by Kadushin 27 — normative administrative , formative educational , and restorative supportive.

This idea of three functions or roles of supervision — management, education and support — is reflected across professions; for example, medicine 23 ; nursing 28 29 30 31 ; social work 27 ; educational psychology 32 , 33 and teaching.

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Various UK documents relating to postgraduate medical education training give guidance on supervision but not a definition. There is little discussion of theoretical models in the medical literature although Bowen and Carline 38 argue that social learning theory describes the process of professionalization. Most models, certainly in the nursing literature, 19 , 41 42 43 tend to be narrative and philosophical with little or no empirical basis. Counselling, psychotherapy, social work and nursing sources contain most discussion of models and theoretical approaches to supervision.

There is some empirical support for this idea although there have been few empirical tests of theoretical models of supervision. This was tested 57 as part of an extensive programme to improve the teaching of physics, mechanics and electronics, that included personalized supervision for the participating teachers, further training in their academic discipline and the provision of teaching materials.

The authors found both quantitative and qualitative changes in the students and concluded that the supervision process should be matched to the conceptual levels in the context of the school system, programme goals and needs. There are some supporting findings from work on counselling and psychotherapy students. Generally, feedback is perceived positively by trainees.

Trainees thought too much time was spent on this at the expense of theoretical, career and teaching issues. Therefore the supervision relationship should begin with discussion about structure, systematic review, planning time to cover all areas, deciding who is responsible for raising each topic and how and when the supervision process will be reviewed. Its content should encompass clinical management, teaching and research; management and administration; pastoral care; interpersonal skills and personal development. The contract should include such issues as the frequency and duration of supervision, appraisal and assessment, goal setting, focus and written requirements.

Reflective practice 77 is frequently cited in health care literature and various authors 78 79 80 81 82 argue that reflection has a central place in supervision in order to examine any experience to identify its essential features. However, Fowler 83 cautions that total reliance on reflection may not always be appropriate in supervision because beginners need direction.

Sessions are used for the supervisee to identify their successful intervention behaviours and decide how to continue using and developing these behaviours. Laker 85 uses three empirically determined principles of effective teaching academic learning time, response presentation and performance feedback as the basis for feedback to student teachers, together with comments on their class management and encouraging them to reflect on practice.

There are a significant number of empirical studies purporting to identify the effects of supervision on trainees, clients or both.

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There is quantitative evidence that supervision can have an effect on patient outcome. Review evidence 86 suggests that increased deaths are associated with less supervision of junior doctors in surgery, anaesthesia, trauma and emergencies, obstetrics and paediatrics. Therefore patient care suffers when trainees are unsupervised even though some trainees claim to benefit from the experience that lack of supervision gives them. Furthermore, unsupervised experience can lead to the acceptance of lower standards of care because the trainee may not learn correct practice without appropriate supervision.

Patients were seen as more seriously ill, there were frequent changes in diagnosis and management and physicians rated seeing the patient themselves as very valuable. There were some acknowledged weaknesses in the study design it was not a randomized trial, and changes in treatment were often minor. The effects of supervision on quality of care was examined in five Harvard teaching hospitals.

Analyses were adjusted for case mix, degree of urgency and chief complaints. Benefits of direct supervision applied regardless of the level of resident training and urgency of case. The authors concluded that close supervision of general surgical residents during rotations to subspecialties is important and that effects of supervision can be evaluated by using probability of trauma survival data.

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They also argue that there is a need to establish measurable standards of supervision. Targeted observation of teaching and provision of feedback resulted in improved teaching skills and increased quality and quantity of interactions with pupils. A literature review 93 found evidence of the effectiveness of supervision, including evidence that the quality of supervision relationships effects outcome evaluations.

Although their methodology is not particularly robust, 95 there are areas of congruence that indicate some ways in which supervision can be effective. One methodological problem is that although trainees report satisfaction, it might not affect their performance or be due to good supervision. Furthermore, student and supervisor emphases can be different.

There is compelling evidence that postgraduate trainees engage in similar behaviours. Giving teachers focused feedback resulted in an immediate increase in levels of performance and motivational feedback given to pupils, 92 however, these effects seem to dissipate very quickly. Effects of self supervision student teachers scored videotapes of their classes were compared with collaborative supervision; the collaborative model helped students increase the number of positive, specific interactions that they had with their pupils but self assessment had little effect.

Behavioural changes appeared relatively early but changes in thinking took longer.

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Similarly in psychotherapy, training skills were acquired fairly quickly, but the ability to make treatment decisions and conceptualize cases developed more slowly and required supervision. Provision of advice, acting as a role model and feedback was crucial to effective clinical psychology supervision and differentiated it from ineffective supervision.


Trainee ratings of the effects of supervision depend on its perceived quality; the amount of supervision social workers received was significantly correlated with their satisfaction with supervision. There are similar findings across professions.